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The two largest parties in the EPRDF coalition—the Oromo Democratic Party and the Amhara Democratic Party, which represent more than 70 percent of Ethiopia, ruling the Oromia and Amhara regions and controlling the federal government—belong to this category.

Articles on infectious diseases took the highest share In the wake of the assassinations, the ADP may now seek to remove actual or potential allies of Asaminew from its central committee and party-state structures and figure out what weapons he circulated and where, and what training and instructions may have been provided by retired officers to militias.

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So far, Abiy appears to have the wide support of Ethiopians, from almost all groups, a feat that no leader has managed in recent Ethiopian history. Ethiopia is witnessing unprecedented internal displacements and ethnic conflicts. Asaminew may have acted without careful planning. Articles on infectious diseases took the highest share The process of liberalizing a political system in an ethnically polarized society is dangerous. Furthermore, there is less tradition to distinguish fact from rumor, and thus fearmongering rhetoric can travel quickly and with fewer checks than in established pluralist environments. Research papers on the chronic non-communicable diseases accounted for Historic photos and abstracts of selected articles are presented in this paper. Of the total papers were original articles, 89 brief communications, case reports review articles in regular issues and about 52 were papers published in special or supplemental issues. In Yugoslavia, the Serbian League of Communists in the late s and early s advocated centralization and keeping the country together, including by force, whereas parties in Slovenia and later Croatia advocated secession.

Worse, the federal and regional institutions have not yet built the capacity to address those challenges. In addition, the policies of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund increased tensions in Yugoslavia as they demanded austerity and a centralized economic policy, which ignored internal political dynamics and fueled social unrest.

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Challenging such divisive politics will require a clear effort by the federal state to mediate and manage conflicts and to remain a neutral arbiter. Interest and support for Yugoslavia waned as the Cold War was winding down, leading to international disinterest until it was too late. Political and social grievances were redirected by skillful politicians, not least by the rising star of Serbian communists, Slobodan Milosevic, against other ethnonational groups, particularly Albanians in Kosovo. Now, as then, questions about the future political and economic system have come to the fore, and power struggles are being overlaid with ethnic politics. But things were already changing under Hailemariam. The dissolution of Yugoslavia and the subsequent wars stand a warning that the transformation of ethnofederal states with diverse and divided group identities poses particular risks. As a consequence, there have been a corresponding number of ethnically based retirements, leaving many retired officers—some of them disgruntled—who are qualified and capable of training militias.

Thus, economic grievances or perceived or real privileges of certain groups lead to heightened tensions. And unlike regional police, both retired officers and militia members can legally join political parties, including radical ethnonationalist groups. During the liberalizing moment, newfound freedom of speech can easily focus on finding culprits, singling out particular groups, and bringing up repressed grievances.

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Similar to the former Yugoslavia, Ethiopia is a federal state with nine units organized along ethnic lines: The Tigray, Somali, Amhara, and Oromia regions around 80 percent of Ethiopia take their names from the dominant ethnic groups. Without careful management of the delicate transition, Ethiopia risks a dangerous fragmentation along ethnic lines.

That Asaminew sought to build up the regional special police by relying on ADFM hardliners returning from Eritrea, with recruits ostensibly more loyal to him than the regional government and the constitution, could have offended—and threatened—the regional president, prompting the internal evaluation proceedings that may have spurred Asaminew to action.

The total number of papers published in the EMJ during the last five decades, excluding abstracts printed in the journal from the annual conferences of EMA and letters to the editor were Ethnic parties usually maximize their support not by moderation but by polarization.

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