In the comment section, konshtok wondered: what am I missing? Utility and Rights, Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Utilitarianism holds that the most ethical choice is the one that will produce the greatest good for the greatest number.
A bioethicist may use counseling and negotiation skills in interventions with staff, patients and families.
These critics assume that the principle of utility is supposed to be used as a decision procedure or guide, that is, as a method that agents consciously apply to acts in advance to help them make decisions.
On the other hand I do believe that governments are capable of enacting utilitarian policies, with one notable exception.
Now, if we assume that an act must be such a proximate cause of a harm in order for that harm to be a consequence of that act, then consequentialists can claim that the moral rightness of that act is determined only by such proximate consequences. Policy formulation may be a necessary part of resolving an issue and the process may include consultation with the various stakeholders in the health care and wider communities.
Many other factors might be included in an allocation policy not because they promote utility, but because it appears necessary to treat potential recipients fairly by giving everyone an equal opportunity to receive an organ when they are in need.
Allocation policies should strive to incorporate an appropriate combination of these principles, giving equal consideration to utility and justice, while incorporating the fundamental aspects of respect for persons. Character and Consequentialism, Special Issue of Utilitas, 13 2.
Introduction: The following report contains a summary of the arguments for and against the commercialization of transplants found in the research. As examples, a small increase in utility may in some circumstances require monumental injustices and violations of autonomy, and a modest gain in terms of justice or autonomy may require enormous costs in terms of utility.