Thus concepts must be defined clearly in an agreed-upon way for them to be useful in research Dlamini, Hence the farmer receives premium benefits associated with such sale. Currently the certification systems for small-scale farmers that have been developed in developing countries are partly transferred back to industrialized countries and similar systems evolve, where small-scale farmers are under pressure through consumers and retailers to certify their products but cannot afford the expensive internationally recognized and acknowledged certification schemes Vogl et al.
Therefore, in this study organic agriculture means a form of food and fibre production that is environmentally friendly, economically viable, and socially acceptable. In the Uganda context such agriculture practise is common among many smallholder rural household and is majorly done in group.
These country specific standards have to be included in the certifications of importing countries to guarantee market access for their organic products.
The natural conditions in Uganda are favorable enough to support a smaller population. Treatment group and control group are also used interchangeably with certifiedorganic farmers and non-certified organic farmers respectively. As a result, organic certifiers often do not only verify the domestic standards but also those of all relevant export markets Kalus, In this system numerous smallholders are certified together as a "Smallholder group" and a group of small holders is defined by the following criteria: They share the costs for certification and the final certificate the cost of individual farms certification would be disproportionately high in relation to the sales value of the product sold, the farm units are mainly managed by family labour, homogeneity of members in terms of geographical location, production system, size of the holding and marketing system they market their products collectively.
These farmers negotiate with exporting companies who in turn purchase and export their products.