Sociology essay plans
For example, the functionalists would talk in terms of anomie and blocked opportunities whereas Marxists would focus on structural inequalities like poverty and unemployment. Many sociologists have identified firstly subculture and secondly educational underperformance as key factors in explaining particularly juvenile crime.
The evidence shows that while there is a statistical link between higher crime levels and lone-parent families, this is probably more to do with the deprivation of such families rather than their structure and shape.
As Left realism showed, people have real fears about crime, yet Pearson points out how we are at the same time fascinated with crime, as evidenced by crime sections in bookshops and libraries and programmes like CSI on television.
By operating according to this stereotype, the police help to reinforce it by turning it into a self-fulfilling prophecy.
Sociology revision notes
AO2 point: However, functionalist analysis is preoccupied with working-class crime and does not explain why crime is committed by middle- and upper-class people as well. There is often a good reason why the label is applied to certain groups or individuals and not to others. Adaptation and change According to functionalists, in order for a deviant to achieve social change one day, they need to be patient. This can result in the person being labelled as deviant and this label becomes their master status. Other examples of corruption in the developed world include giving contracts in return for financial donations to political parties. He also subcultural theorists also criticise Merton for failing to explain the non-material crime of juvenile delinquency. Recent government statistics suggest that there is a relationship between the long term unemployed and youth crime. Rationalization and Disenchantment Max Weber argued development of science, technology and social bureaucracies undermined the role of religion in society. Its usefulness can be gauged by its influence on subsequent theories such as New Criminology and elements of Left realism. This is a useful concept centred on lessening the impact and justifying illegal activities. Conclusion, The interactionist labelling theory views criminality as the result of negative labelling that might be linked to social class, ethnicity or gender.
This makes the investigation difficult for the sociological researcher. However this view is very deterministic i.
Revise sociology family
This overcomes the problem of individual states defining what constitutes a crime, as human rights have become a global benchmark, reinforced by the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights More radical Marxists take there analysis further, arguing that it is the fault of the Capitalist system that breeds selfish individualism, inequality and poverty, all of which can lead to crime. So, while daughters are controlled more within the family, most adult women are controlled by their domestic responsibilities. Many non-Christian religions are growing. Delinquent activities allow a member to let out their frustration through violence at their blocked opportunities as well as an alternate hierarchy. Through the skilful use of the media and public-relations teams, firms are able to gloss over environmental crimes by defending their activities with arguments such as providing employment, boosting export earnings, advancing technology. However, crime statistics can be misleading. Introduction Secularisation usually measured by beliefs, behaviour and belonging On all measurements, the UK certainly seems to be getting more secular HOWEVER, there are limitations with the evidence, and possible counter trends, especially when we look at religion globally. However, it is worth pointing out that the poorest performing educational group is white, working-class males. He argues that young men, particularly those not working at all, may have great difficulty resolving this, frequently resorting to antisocial and violent behaviour. Chambliss gives the example of the introduction of the British tax system in South Africa in order to have workers and make profits; the British introduced the tax system which forced Africans to work for land owners who made profit.
The view of the police is shaped by sociological perspectives. This was because the media exaggerated this fear of mugging, leading to a social reaction that effectively labelled all young black males as potential muggers.
This suggests at face value that the UK has a problem with black criminality. With a growing green political agenda, such crimes are viewed with increasing concern and treated seriously. Intro Official statistics do show that men and women from African-Caribbean backgrounds are disproportionately over-represented in terms of arrest, prosecution and imprisonment.
For example, Lombroso argued that females are innately different from men and that this explained the different levels of crime between the genders. These factors result in the labelling and arresting of young black males, which then serves to reinforce and justify the values of the police: a self-fulfilling prophecy.
Sociology a level example essays
The evidence shows that while there is a statistical link between higher crime levels and lone-parent families, this is probably more to do with the deprivation of such families rather than their structure and shape. It also does not take into account different societies and has not looked at other inequalities such as ethnic inequalities it only focuses on wealth. Initially, it seams that there is a lot of evidence to support Consensus Theory. With regard to business offenders, it really depends on the will of the government to pursue them. Functionalists would say that this is performed by courts in order to publicly dramatize offences and remind members of society what will happen if they commit a crime. However the boundaries are too sharp. So, while daughters are controlled more within the family, most adult women are controlled by their domestic responsibilities. Also it fails to consider crimes of the powerful i. However, Walker criticises Murray for relying solely on innuendos, anecdotes and stories. To explain the higher engagement of young males from the Caribbean community in criminal behaviour. Ross has argued that states can commit state crime by negligence. This makes the investigation difficult for the sociological researcher.
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